Source: IRENA statistics
GGA Partners in Europe
AGH University of Science and Technology – through the Centre of Sustainable Development and Energy Savings of the Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Science and Technology in Poland conducts research activities in the field of renewable energy sources, including geothermal.
Energy Institute Hrvoje Požar (EIHP) – a state-owned Croatian institution with the objective of improving the knowledge and competencies of energy sector stakeholders through provision of scientific and expert services.
European Geothermal Energy Council (EGEC) – the European geothermal energy trade association, aiming to promote geothermal development in Europe by influencing the improvement of frameworks and driving research.
GEODEEP – a cluster of French corporations and professional associations for heat and power involved in geothermal engineering and power plant development, created under the umbrella of the French Association of Geothermal Professionals (AFPG).
GeoEnergy Celle e.V. – a German association that aims to promote technologies, standards and infrastructure for the efficient accessibility and use of oil, natural gas and geothermal energy, as well as supporting new applications and markets, particularly in the field of renewable energy sources.
Geothermal Power Plant Investors Association (JESDER) – an association of geothermal power generators that provides relevant geothermal information and networking opportunities for its members, and contributes to the development of geothermal regulations in Turkey.
GRO – Geothermal Training Programme (GRO GTP) – an associated organisation under the auspices of the United Nations Education and Scientific Organisation (UNESCO) and under the umbrella of the Centre for Capacity Development; through this programme, Icelandic geothermal experts offer capacity-building assistance in geothermal exploration and development to developing countries.
Iceland GeoSurvey (ISOR) – the state-owned Icelandic institution concerned with geothermal exploration, development and utilisation.
Iceland Geothermal Cluster Initiative – a network of Icelandic organisations involved in geothermal development, aiming to promote geothermal as a competitive renewable energy solution for business and society.
Macedonian Geothermal Association – an association involved in the promotion of geothermal energy in North Macedonia.
National Energy Authority – the regulator of the energy sector in Iceland, as well as the agency mandated to issue geothermal licences.
Nordic Development Fund – the joint multilateral development finance institution of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden established in 1989, which adheres to the development assistance policies of the Nordic countries; among the geothermal projects supported by NDF include the East Africa Geothermal Exploration Project.
Serbian Geological Society – a scientific organisation of Serbian geologists with the objective of performing geological investigations of Serbia and other parts of the Balkan peninsula for geothermal development and other purposes.
Serbian Geothermal Association – an association involved in resource assessment, professional activities and promotion of the utilisation of geothermal resources in Serbia.
University of Geneva – through the Renewable Energy Systems group, the university carries out modelling of energy systems, including geothermal, to support the transition to renewables; it models future energy projections and scenarios to support decision making and conducts research on socially acceptable and economically viable energy solutions.
Regional geothermal projects and programmes in Europe
The EEA and Norway Grants – a fund provided by Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway supporting climate change, energy, cultural co‑operation and civil society projects in 15 countries: Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia; the grants have two goals: to contribute to a more equal Europe, both socially and economically, and to strengthen the relations between Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, and the 15 beneficiary countries in Europe.
European Energy Research Alliance – Joint Programme on Geothermal Energy (EERA-JPGE) – a programme comprising major European geothermal R&D institutions, aiming to facilitate the development of reliable and highly efficient technology for the use of deep geothermal resources for heat and power.
European Technology & Innovation Platform on Deep Geothermal (ETIP–DG) – a stakeholder group open to industry, academia, research centres and sectoral associations, aiming to promote deep geothermal technology so that it reaches its full potential in Europe; it is supported by the EU under the Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan).
European Technology and Innovation Platform on Renewable Heating & Cooling (RHC-ETIP) – a stakeholder group comprising representatives of the biomass, geothermal, solar thermal, heat pump and district heating and cooling sectors, with the objective of developing strategies for increasing the use of renewables for heating and cooling.
GeoDH Project (2011–2014) – a project aiming to overcome non-technical barriers to the development of geothermal district heating.
GeoElec (2011–2013) – this EGEC project developed an action plan for doubling the installed geothermal power capacity in Europe by 2020, including concrete actions to reach this goal, such as conditions for financial feasibility, regulatory frameworks and public acceptance.
Geo Energy Europe – a coalition of geo-energy SMEs in Europe with membership from 23 European countries, aiming to contribute to the uptake of deep geothermal and share geothermal knowhow with the rest of Europe and the entire world.
Project Development Assistance (PDA) – a series of facilities set up by the European Commission to support ambitious public authorities (regions, cities, municipalities or groups of them) and public bodies in developing bankable sustainable energy projects, including for geothermal energy; the facilities aim to bridge the gap between sustainable energy plans and real investment by supporting all activities necessary to prepare and mobilise investment into sustainable energy projects, including feasibility studies, stakeholder and community mobilisation, financial engineering, business plans, technical specifications and procurement procedures.
REGEOCITIES (2012–2015) – a project to promote the integration of shallow geothermal sources into energy systems at a local and regional level by highlighting best practices and progressive regulatory framework; among its activities was the “heat under our feet” awareness-raising of the ground source heat pump industry in Europe.
Renewable District Energy in the Western Balkans Programme (ReDEWeB Programme) – a programme of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) aiming to support investment in the renewable district energy sector of the western Balkans, including geothermal, by enabling its integration into the energy and urban plans of municipalities; it prepares preliminary designs and feasibility studies, and establishes policy frameworks that incentivise the private sector to prepare and submit self-initiated proposals for renewable district energy infrastructure; project beneficiaries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia, Kosovo, Montenegro, and Serbia.
Regional Geothermal Resource/Market Assessments in Europe
This project developed a methodology for studying the geothermal resource in six countries of the Danube region (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Hungary, Romania, Serbia and Slovenia). The partner countries covered by the project provided geothermal data, which were diverse in content, format, density and level of knowledge.
The data were used to determine a generalised regional geology of the Pannonian basin, which was formed as a result of crustal extension and later filled with sedimentary material, creating a hydrothermal system that consists of fractures in the basement rock as well as in the sedimentary layer. The geothermal conditions are characterised by a positive temperature gradient averaging 45°C/km.
A conceptual model of the Pannonian basin was developed, defining the lithology and porosity of the upper sedimentary layer and the basement rock, subsurface temperature distribution and the extent of the reservoir. On the basis of this information, the geothermal resource of this region was assessed, covering an area of approximately 100 000 km2.
The EGEC Geothermal Market Report is a publication on the evolution of the geothermal sector in Europe. Covering all segments of the sector, from electricity production to shallow geothermal heating systems and deep geothermal for heating and cooling, the Geothermal Market Report provides a comprehensive picture of the state of the sector in Europe. Beyond the statistical reporting, it also provides insightful analysis of the market trends, policy framework and technology evolutions that shape the geothermal sector. For the year 2018 the technology focus of the report was operators and developers of deep geothermal projects.
The GeoDH project analysed the regional potential for geothermal district heating in 14 EU countries. It revealed that 25% of Europe’s population lives in areas suitable for geothermal district heating. As part of the project, an interactive webmap viewer (GeoDH Web GIS) was developed for policy makers. The webmap viewer: indicates areas with existing district heating systems, including geothermal district heating systems; indicates areas with favourable temperature distribution, i.e. 50°C at 1 000 m deep and 90°C at 2 000 m deep; and matches these with existing district heating infrastructure and population centres to determine the district heating potential.