Global Geothermal Market and Technology Assessment
This global assessment provides an overview of developments in the geothermal sector and the factors that will shape the geothermal market in the near future.
Over the last several decades, the geothermal industry has developed in different ways across the world. Different regions have distinct geographical and geological conditions, electricity and heat market conditions, policies and regulatory frameworks, development ambitions and implementation capacity. These factors have combined to produce different patterns in the development and use of geothermal resources.
In the framework of the Global Geothermal Alliance (GGA), IRENA and the International Geothermal Association (IGA), developed the Global Geothermal Market and Technology Assessment report, to identify the factors driving geothermal development globally, and in different regions. The report provides an assessment of the status of geothermal electricity and heating and cooling capacities; as well as the key trends relating to technological advancement, cross-industry collaborations between geothermal and related sectors, and the increasing utilisation of low- and medium temperature resources for electricity generation, and heating and cooling applications. It also assesses the recent developments in the wider energy sector including energy transition and climate policies, the ongoing energy crisis, energy market policies, and their impact on geothermal development at the regional and global level.
Finally, the report provides recommendations to guide policy makers, potential investors, development partners and other stakeholders on how to promote growth of geothermal markets, exploit the potential of geothermal energy and further expand geothermal’s integration within global energy systems.
The development of the report benefited from the input of over 30 geothermal sector experts drawn from the constituency of the GGA.
Powering Agri-food Value Chains with Geothermal Heat
The proposed recommendations address challenges related to inadequate data on geothermal resources and existing heating demand for agri-food applications, absent or misaligned enabling framework conditions, inadequate financing, and lack of awareness. In addition, the guidebook recommends the adoption of methodologies to determine the tariff for geothermal heat as well as for quantifying the socio-economic impacts of deploying geothermal heat in the agri-food sector, as tools for supporting decision making.
Geothermal: The Solution Underneath
Geothermal energy has been improving in efficiency, and there are now more than 15.4 gigawatts (GW) of installed geothermal power plants globally. Estimates show that geothermal energy can supply about 8.3% of the total electricity needs of the world and serve about 17% of the global. Geothermal technology can produce clean, baseload and flexible power generation, making it a promising option for the transition to clean energy and a more sustainable economic model. In addition to power generation, geothermal energy has multiple applications as a heat source or sink in end-use sectors such as building, agrifood and industry.
United Nations framework Classification for Geothermal Energy: Pilot Applications in the Caribbean, Ethiopia and Indonesia
United Nations framework Classification for Geothermal Energy: Pilot Applications in the Caribbean, Ethiopia and Indonesia The joint report by IRENA, the International Geothermal Association (IGA) and the World Bank’s Energy Sector Management Program (ESMAP), supported by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), highlights the main challenges and way forward to adopt the United Nations Framework Classification (UNFC) for geothermal energy resources, based on experiences and lessons learned in a pilot programme carried out in the Caribbean, Ethiopia and Indonesia to adapt the broader UNFC specifications and guidelines to geothermal energy resources.
The UNFC guidelines and codes is a universal standardized language for reporting of resource potential in a manner that enables projects for different resources types and jurisdictions to be comparable, therefore facilitating decision making for investment.
Integrating low-temperature renewables in district energy systems Guidelines for policy makers
Integrating low-temperature renewables in district energy systems Guidelines for policy makers A report developed by IRENA in collaboration with Aalborg University and with the support of an Advisory Group of District Heating and Cooling Experts, drawn from the constituency of the GGA and other institutions. It provides guidelines to policy makers at the national and local level, urban planners, district heating and cooling utilities, etc. on the options and available tools for facilitating the integration of low temperature renewable energy resources, including geothermal and solar thermal, into new and existing district heating and cooling networks and buildings.
The key topics addressed in the report include strategic planning for heating and cooling; technical challenges and solutions on the integration of renewables into existing or new buildings and networks; and enabling regulatory conditions, business models, and financing.
Geothermal Development in Eastern Africa: Recommendations for power and direct use
This regional assessment of geothermal development for electricity and direct use in the countries of the East African Rift and the Comoros was carried out through a consultative process with relevant stakeholders, under the umbrella of the Global Geothermal Alliance.
The report provides an updated overview of the status (as of 2020) of geothermal development in selected countries of the East African Rift region, identifies bottlenecks hindering further development, and provides key recommendations to policy makers and key stakeholders regarding possible options to accelerate the deployment of geothermal energy in the region.
Accelerating geothermal heat adoption in the agri-food sector: Key lessons and recommendations - IRENA
This publication aims to increase awareness, share experiences and lessons, and provide recommendations for expanding geothermal heat use in the agri-food sector. The analysis in this document suggests critical factors for the development of projects in the field.
Opportunities and Challenges for Scaling-up Geothermal Development in LAC region - World Bank - ESMAP
This report aims to be a guide for decision-makers, assessing key challenges and measures to facilitate expanding geothermal development in LAC..
Geothermal power: Technology brief
Geothermal energy is a promising resource for the energy transition, with benefits ranging from sustainability, reliable baseload supply, and its abundance all over the world. Technologies aiding the geothermal development are increasing and improving to accelerate geothermal use. This technology brief provides concise and comprehensive information on the valuable resource, offering technical background information on the geothermal development process and technology status, market analyses, barriers to deployment, as well as insights for policy makers to use geothermal for power generation. The key data and analyses presented are essential in understanding how geothermal is harnessed and used for various applications worldwide, as well as the opportunities that come with exploiting geothermal resources for a more sustainable planet.
Unlocking Geothermal Power: How the Eastern Caribbean Could Become a Geothermal Powerhouse - IDB
This document presents a strategy for developing geothermal potential through public–private partnerships in the Eastern Caribbean.
Unlocking Renewable Energy Investment: The role of risk mitigation and structured finance - IRENA
The report identifies the main risks and barriers limiting investment; it also supplies a toolkit for policy makers, public and private investors, and public finance institutions to scale up their investments in renewable energy.
Comparative Analysis of Approaches to Geothermal Resource Risk Mitigation: A Global Survey – World Bank – ESMAP
This report presents a comparative assessment of an array of approaches that have been applied around the world, with varying degrees of success, to mitigate resource risks and catalyze investments in developing the geothermal sector.
Greenhouse Gases from Geothermal Power Production – World Bank – ESMAP
This technical report provides an overview of the current knowledge on GHG emissions from geothermal power plants. It gives guidance to project developers and financial institutions on to how to estimate emissions, ex ante, from geothermal power projects.